It is an old science, having its beginnings in prehistoric times. Anatomy and physiologywhich study the structure and function of organisms and their parts respectively, make a natural pair of related disciplinesand are often studied together. Human anatomy is one of the essential basic sciences that are applied in medicine. The discipline of anatomy is divided into macroscopic and microscopic.
Macroscopic anatomy, or gross anatomyis the examination of an animal's body parts using unaided eyesight. Gross anatomy also includes the branch of superficial anatomy.
Microscopic anatomy involves the use of optical instruments in the study of the tissues of various structures, known as histologyand also in the study of cells.
The history of anatomy is characterized by a progressive understanding of the functions of the organs and structures of the human body.
Methods have also improved dramatically, advancing from the examination of animals by dissection of carcasses and cadavers corpses to 20th century medical imaging techniques including X-rayultrasoundand magnetic resonance imaging.
It includes the appearance and position of the various parts, the materials from which they are composed, their locations and their relationships with other parts. Anatomy is quite distinct from physiology and biochemistrywhich deal respectively with the functions of those parts and the chemical processes involved. For example, an anatomist is concerned with the shape, size, position, structure, blood supply and innervation of an organ such as the liver; while a physiologist is interested in the production of bilethe role of the liver in nutrition and the regulation of bodily functions.
The discipline of anatomy can be subdivided into a number of branches including gross or macroscopic anatomy and microscopic anatomy. Microscopic anatomy is the study of structures on a microscopic scale, along with histology the study of tissuesand embryology the study of an organism in its immature condition. Anatomy can be studied using both invasive and non-invasive methods with the goal of obtaining information about the structure and organization of organs and systems.
Angiography using X-rays or magnetic resonance angiography are methods to visualize blood vessels.
The term "anatomy" is commonly taken to refer to human anatomy. However, substantially the same structures and tissues are found throughout the rest of the animal kingdom and the term also includes the anatomy of other animals.
The term zootomy is also sometimes used to specifically refer to non-human animals. The structure and tissues of plants are of a dissimilar nature and they are studied in plant anatomy. The kingdom Animalia contains multicellular organisms that are heterotrophic and motile although some have secondarily adopted a sessile lifestyle.
Most animals have bodies differentiated into separate tissues and these animals are also known as eumetazoans.
They have an internal digestive chamber, with one or two openings; the gametes are produced in multicellular sex organs, and the zygotes include a blastula stage in their embryonic development. Metazoans do not include the spongeswhich have undifferentiated cells. Unlike plant cellsanimal cells have neither a cell wall nor chloroplasts. Vacuoles, when present, are more in number and much smaller than those in the plant cell.
The body tissues are composed of numerous types of cell, including those found in musclesnerves and skin. Each typically has a cell membrane formed of phospholipidscytoplasm and a nucleus.Anatomy is the study of the structure of living organisms. This subdiscipline of biology can be further categorized into the study of large-scale anatomical structures gross anatomy and the study of microscopic anatomical structures microscopic anatomy. Human anatomy deals with anatomical structures of the human body, including cellstissues, organs, and organ systems.
Anatomy is always linked to physiologythe study of how biological processes function in living organisms. Therefore it is not enough to be able to identify a structure, its function must also be understood. The study of human anatomy provides a better understanding of the structures of the body and how they work. Your goal in a basic anatomy course should be to learn and understand the structures and functions of the major body systems.
Remember that organ systems don't just exist as individual units. Each system depends on the others, either directly or indirectly, to keep the body functioning normally. It is also important to identify the major cellstissues, and organs and know how they function.
Studying anatomy involves lots of memorization. For instance, the human body contains bones and over muscles. Learning these structures requires time, effort, and good memorization skills. Perhaps you can find a study partner or group that will make it easier. Be sure to take clear notes and ask questions in class about anything you are unclear on. Using standard anatomical terminology ensures that anatomists have a common method of communicating to avoid confusion when identifying structures.
Knowing anatomical directional terms and body planesfor instance, enables you to describe the locations of structures in relation to other structures or locations in the body. Learning the common prefixes and suffixes used in anatomy and biology is also helpful. If you are studying the brachiocephalic artery, you can figure out its function by knowing the affixes in the name.
The affix brachio- refers to the upper arm and cephal refers to the head. If you have memorized that an artery is a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart, you can determine that the brachiocephalic artery is a blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the head and arm regions of the body.
Believe it or not, anatomy coloring books are one of the best study aids to learn and memorize structures and their location. The Anatomy Coloring Book is a popular choice, but other coloring books work as well. Flashcards are valuable for reviewing information and are not meant to be a substitute for anatomy texts. Acquiring a good complementary text, such as Netter's Atlas of Human Anatomyis a must for higher-level anatomy courses and those interested in or already attending medical school.
These resources provide detailed illustrations and pictures of various anatomical structures. To really make sure you comprehend the material, you must constantly review what you have learned.
It is vital that you attend any and all anatomy review sessions given by your instructor. Be sure to always take practice quizzes before taking any test or quiz. Get together with a study group and quiz each other on the material. If you are taking an anatomy course with a lab, be sure that you prepare for what you are going to be studying before lab class.
The main thing you want to avoid is falling behind. With the volume of information covered in most anatomy courses, it is important that you stay ahead and know what you need to know before you need to know it. Organisms, including humans, are arranged in a hierarchical structure. Cells compose tissues of the body, which can be categorized into four primary types. Tissues in turn form organs of the body.
Organ systems are formed from groups of organs and tissues working in conjunction to perform necessary functions for the survival of the organism. Examples of organ systems include.Simply stated, human anatomy is the study of the parts of the human body. Human anatomy includes both gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy includes those human structures that can be seen with the naked eye. Gross anatomy can be compared to the structure of a house as shown in a blueprint of a house or by looking at and inspecting a house in person with the naked eye.
As you look at the house's interior and exterior you will see a foundation, a roof, doors, windows, floors, a plumbing system, an electrical system, ceilings, etc. Similarly, when you view the exterior and interior of the human body with the naked eye, you are able to see its gross anatomy. For example, as you look at the human body with the naked eye, you will see its interior when the inner parts of the body are exposed, and you will see the exterior of the intact body.
You will see the human's skeletal foundation, you will see the head as its roof, you will see the doors and windows in terms of the body's openings such as the mouth, the floor as the feet, an internal plumbing system with the external and internal structures and organs of the urinary and digestive systems, and you will see the brain and the heart, when exposed, as the electrical system of the body.
Microscopic anatomy, as contrasted to gross anatomy, is the study of those parts of the human body that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Structures that are viewed only with a microscope are structures included in the study of microscopic anatomy. Microscopic anatomy is further divided into the exploration of the histological and cytological studies. Cytology is the branch of microscopic anatomy that studies the cells and histology is the branch of microscopic anatomy that studies tissues.
Below are some terms relating to anatomy, anatomical structures and anatomical directions that you must be familiar with.
General Anatomy and Physiology of a Human: TEAS
The anatomical position, with terms of relative location noted. The anatomical position is the frame of reference for many other terms relating to anatomy, anatomical structures and anatomical directions. The anatomical position consists of a standing upright person facing forward with the person's arms on their sides next to the body and the feet together. What makes the anatomical position different from a normal standing position is the fact that the palms of the hands are unnaturally facing forward rather than naturally facing the leg, as you can see in the picture above.
Simply stated, the anatomical planes of the human body are imaginary lines going through the body that give us some point of reference when we are studying anatomy.
The frontal plane, also referred to as the coronal plane, which is shown in the picture above, is the imaginary line that separates the front from the back of the body. The term used for the front of the body is the ventral surface and the term used for the back of the body is the dorsal surface of the body. The transverse plane, also referred to as the cross sectional plane, which is shown in the picture above, is the imaginary line that separates the top of the body at the waist from the bottom of the body.
The sagittal plane, also referred to as the medial plane, which is shown in the picture above, is the imaginary line that separates the right side of the body from the left side of the body. The term anterior is a relative and comparative directional term that is used to describe that a bodily part or anatomical structure is closer to the front of the body than another bodily part or anatomical structure.Human bodythe physical substance of the human organism, composed of living cells and extracellular materials and organized into tissuesorgansand systems.
Human anatomy and physiology are treated in many different articles. For detailed discussions of specific tissues, organs, and systems, see human blood ; cardiovascular system ; digestive system, human ; endocrine system, human ; renal system ; skin ; human muscle system ; nervous system ; reproductive system, human ; respiration, human ; sensory reception, human ; skeletal system, human. For a description of how the body develops, from conception through old agesee aging ; growth ; prenatal development ; human development.
For information on the structure and function of the cells that constitute the body, see cell. For example, see abdominal cavity ; adrenal gland ; aorta ; bone ; brain ; ear ; eye ; heart ; kidney ; large intestine ; lung ; nose ; ovary ; pancreas ; pituitary gland ; small intestine ; spinal cord ; spleen ; stomach ; testis ; thymus ; thyroid gland ; tooth ; uterus ; vertebral column.
Humans are, of course, animals—more particularly, members of the order Primates in the subphylum Vertebrata of the phylum Chordata. Like all chordatesthe human animal has a bilaterally symmetrical body that is characterized at some point during its development by a dorsal supporting rod the notochordgill slits in the region of the pharynxand a hollow dorsal nerve cord. Of these features, the first two are present only during the embryonic stage in the human; the notochord is replaced by the vertebral column, and the pharyngeal gill slits are lost completely.
The dorsal nerve cord is the spinal cord in humans; it remains throughout life.
Select a Human Anatomy System to Begin
Characteristic of the vertebrate form, the human body has an internal skeleton that includes a backbone of vertebrae. Typical of mammalian structure, the human body shows such characteristics as hair, mammary glandsand highly developed sense organs. Beyond these similarities, however, lie some profound differences. Among the mammalsonly humans have a predominantly two-legged bipedal posture, a fact that has greatly modified the general mammalian body plan. Moreover, the human brain, particularly the neocortex, is far and away the most highly developed in the animal kingdom.
As intelligent as are many other mammals—such as chimpanzees and dolphins —none have achieved the intellectual status of the human species. Chemically, the human body consists mainly of water and of organic compounds —i. Water is found in the extracellular fluids of the body the blood plasmathe lymphand the interstitial fluid and within the cells themselves.
It serves as a solvent without which the chemistry of life could not take place. The human body is about 60 percent water by weight. Lipids —chiefly fatsphospholipidsand steroids —are major structural components of the human body. Fats provide an energy reserve for the body, and fat pads also serve as insulation and shock absorbers. Phospholipids and the steroid compound cholesterol are major components of the membrane that surrounds each cell. Proteins also serve as a major structural component of the body.
Like lipids, proteins are an important constituent of the cell membrane. In addition, such extracellular materials as hair and nails are composed of protein. Proteins also perform numerous functional roles in the body. Particularly important are cellular proteins called enzymeswhich catalyze the chemical reactions necessary for life. Carbohydrates are present in the human body largely as fuels, either as simple sugars circulating through the bloodstream or as glycogena storage compound found in the liver and the muscles.
Small amounts of carbohydrates also occur in cell membranes, but, in contrast to plants and many invertebrate animals, humans have little structural carbohydrate in their bodies. Nucleic acids make up the genetic materials of the body. It is DNA, passed from parents to offspring, that dictates the inherited characteristics of each individual human. Chief among these are calciumphosphorussodiummagnesiumand iron. Calcium is also present as ions in the blood and interstitial fluidas is sodium. Ions of phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium, on the other handare abundant within the intercellular fluid.
Iron is present mainly as part of hemoglobinthe oxygen-carrying pigment of the red blood cells. Other mineral constituents of the body, found in minute but necessary concentrations, include cobaltcopperiodinemanganeseand zinc.An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions.
Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that coexist in organ systems. A given organ's tissues can be broadly categorized as parenchymathe tissue peculiar to or at least archetypal of the organ and that does the organ's specialized job, and stromathe tissues with supportive, structural, connective, or ancillary functions.
For example, in a glandthe tissue that makes the hormones is the parenchyma, whereas the stroma includes the nerves that innervate the parenchyma, the blood vessels that oxygenate and nourish it and carry away its metabolic wastes, and the connective tissues that provide a suitable place for it to be situated and anchored. The main tissues that make up an organ tend to have common embryologic origins, such as arising from the same germ layer.
Functionally related organs often cooperate to form whole organ systems.
Organs exist in most multicellular organisms. In single-celled organisms such as bacteriathe functional analogue of an organ is known as an organelle. In plants, there are three main organs. In the study of anatomythe term viscus refers to an internal organ.
Viscera is the plural form. The number of organs in any organism depends on which precise definition of the term one uses. By one widely used definition, 79 organs have been identified in the human body. In biologytissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and complete organs.
A tissue is an ensemble of similar cells and their extracellular matrix from the same origin that together carry out a specific function. Organs are then formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues. The study of human and animal tissues is known as histology or, in connection with disease, histopathology.
For plants, the discipline is called plant morphology. Classical tools for studying tissues include the paraffin block agarose gel is often used with plants   in which tissue is embedded and then sectioned, the histological stainand the optical microscope. In the last couple of decades, developments in electron microscopyimmunofluorescenceand the use of frozen tissue sections have enhanced the detail that can be observed in tissues.
With these tools, the classical appearances of tissues can be examined in health and disease, enabling considerable refinement of medical diagnosis and prognosis.
Two or more organs working together in the execution of a specific body function form an organ system, also called a biological system or body system. The functions of organ systems often share significant overlap. For instance, the nervous and endocrine system both operate via a shared organ, the hypothalamus. For this reason, the two systems are combined and studied as the neuroendocrine system. The same is true for the musculoskeletal system because of the relationship between the muscular and skeletal systems.
Common organ system designations in plants includes the differentiation of shoot and root. All parts of the plant above ground in non- epiphytesincluding the functionally distinct leaf and flower organs, may be classified together as the shoot organ system. Non- placozoan animals such as humans have a variety of organ systems. These specific systems are also widely studied in human anatomy.
The study of plant organs is referred to as plant morphologyrather than anatomy — as in animal systems. Organs of plants can be divided into vegetative and reproductive. Vegetative plant organs include rootsstemsand leaves. The reproductive organs are variable.The human body is the structure of a human being. It is composed of many different types of cells that together create tissues and subsequently organ systems.
They ensure homeostasis and the viability of the human body. It comprises a headnecktrunk which includes the thorax and abdomenarms and handslegs and feet. The study of the human body involves anatomyphysiologyhistology and embryology. The body varies anatomically in known ways. Physiology focuses on the systems and organs of the human body and their functions.
Many systems and mechanisms interact in order to maintain homeostasis, with safe levels of substances such as sugar and oxygen in the blood.
The body is studied by health professionalsphysiologists, anatomists, and by artists to assist them in their work. The human body is composed of elements including hydrogenoxygencarboncalcium and phosphorus. This is made up of about 19 litres 4.
The main electrolytes in body water outside cells are sodium and chloridewhereas within cells it is potassium and other phosphates. The body contains trillions of cellsthe fundamental unit of life. The body is also host to about the same number of non-human cells  as well as multicellular organisms which reside in the gastrointestinal tract and on the skin. Cells sit in an extracellular matrix that consists of proteins such as collagensurrounded by extracellular fluids. Cells in the body function because of DNA.
DNA sits within the nucleus of a cell. Proteins dictate cell function and gene expression, a cell is able to self-regulate by the amount of proteins produced. The body consists of many different types of tissuedefined as cells that act with a specialised function.
The body consists of four main types of tissues — lining cells epitheliaconnective tissuenerve tissue and muscle tissue. Cells that lie on surfaces exposed to the outside world or gastrointestinal tract epithelia or internal cavities endothelium come in numerous shapes and forms — from single layers of flat cellsto cells with small beating hair-like cilia in the lungs, to column-like cells that line the stomach.
Endothelial cells are cells that line internal cavities including blood vessels and glands. Lining cells regulate what can and can't pass through them, protect internal structures, and function as sensory surfaces.
Organsstructured collections of cells with a specific function,  mostly sit within the body, with the exception of skin. Examples include the heartlungs and liver. Many organs reside within cavities within the body. These cavities include the abdomen which contains the stomach, for example and pleurawhich contains the lungs.
The circulatory system consists of the heart and blood vessels arteriesveins and capillaries. The heart propels the circulation of the blood, which serves as a "transportation system" to transfer oxygenfuel, nutrients, waste products, immune cells and signalling molecules i.
Paths of blood circulation within the human body can be divided into two circuits: the pulmonary circuitwhich pumps blood to the lungs to receive oxygen and leave carbon dioxideand the systemic circuit, which carries blood from the heart off to the rest of the body. The blood consists of fluid that carries cells in the circulation, including some that move from tissue to blood vessels and back, as well as the spleen and bone marrow.Anatomy is the identification and description of the structures of living things.
It is a branch of biology and medicine. The study of anatomy goes back over 2, years, to the Ancient Greeks. It can be divided into three broad areas: Human anatomy, zootomy, or animal anatomy, and phytotomy, which is plant anatomy. Human anatomy is the study of the structures of the human body. An understanding of anatomy is key to the practice of health and medicine. There are two ways of looking at anatomy: Gross, or macroscopic, anatomy and microscopic anatomy. In medicine, gross anatomy, macro anatomy, or topographical anatomy refers to the study of the biological structures that are visible to the naked eye.
The study of gross anatomy may involve dissection or noninvasive methods.The Great Sperm Race (Human Anatomy Documentary) - Spark
The aim is to collect data about the larger structures of organs and organ systems. In dissection, the scientist cuts open the human or animal cadaver is cut open and examines its organs.
Endoscopyinserting a tube with a camera at the end, might be used to study structures within living animals. Endoscopy is performed either through the mouth or through the rectum, so the gastrointestinal tract is often the primary organ of interest.
There are also less invasive methods. For example, to study the blood vessels of living animals or humans, the scientist may insert an opaque dye into the animal that will highlight the circulatory system when imaging technology, such as angiography. Techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging MRIcomputed tomography CTor x-ray also reveal information about the inside of a living body.
Medical and dental students perform dissection as part of their practical work in gross human anatomy during their studies. They may dissect a human corpse. Although these systems have different names, they all work interdependently, meaning they work together and depend on each other.
Microscopic anatomy, also known as histology, is the study of cells and tissues of animals, humans and plants that are too small to been seen with the naked eye.